According to the State Environmental Protection Administration 2003 survey, more than 50 hospitals in USA a total of 8515, these hospitals during operation, the daily amount of sewage discharged around 823,400 cubic meters, has become an important aspect of environmental pollution.
Although built a considerable number of hospital sewage treatment facilities, water pollution control in hospital has played a positive role, but the situation in developed countries and the World Health Organization, the hospital treatment compared to the demands, the overall treatment of hospital sewage level is still low. To maintain a good water environment for mankind’s survival, build a good natural ecosystem, so do a good job of hospital sewage treatment and disposal management is very necessary and urgent.
Table of Contents
1. Status of Hospital Sewage Treatment.
Hospital wastewater sources and complex composition, different departments, and sections of water effluent composition vary, except with a lot of bacteria, viruses, eggs, and other disease pathogens, but also contain chemicals, heavy metals, disinfectants, organic solvents, acid, alkali, and other radioisotopes.
The water has space pollution, sexually transmitted acute infection and latent characteristics that pose great harm. If not effectively deal with emissions into the city sewer or natural water body, often caused by water and soil pollution, lead to various diseases or lead to outbreaks of waterborne infectious diseases, a serious threat to people’s health.
According to statistics, more than 50 hospitals in a total of 8515, a total of 1,333,109 beds, sewage treatment facilities, hospitals have 4,935, accounting for 58%. The hospital discharge day total of 823,400 m3 / d, the actual processing capacity of 679,500 m3 / d, treatment was 82%, according to current emissions standards compliance emissions 581,500 m3 / d, compliance was 70.6%.
Different ownership among the various regions are quite different, more developed eastern part of sewage treatment facilities in district hospitals have rated higher than 90%, while the less developed western areas of hospital sewage treatment facilities have a lower rate, only 10% ~ 30%.
Existing hospital building sewage treatment facilities generally follow the original “design of hospital treatment”, according to the difference into the water, divided into two categories:
One for the region in a range of urban sewage, the sewage by adding liquid chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, ozone disinfection and directly into the municipal sewer.
The hospital discharged into the city sewer treatment, because only the use of disinfection treatment process, the following iforgot apple: high concentration of suspended solids affect disinfection; handle low-level, water quality and volatile, difficult to control the dosage of disinfectant; Disinfection products were large, affecting the safety of the ecological environment; unlimited residual chlorine standards, too much residual chlorine harmful ecological security.
Another for the proper discharge after biological treatment and disinfection of natural water, this process can effectively control pollution, to meet emissions requirements.
2. World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines On Hospital Discharge.
World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the hospital discharges in that hospital sewage in the lower reaches of the city sewage treatment plant with the following conditions, you can only disinfect water discharged into the municipal pipe: downstream municipal wastewater treatment plant is running well, the secondary biological treatment system can remove over 95% of pathogenic microorganisms;municipal sewage treatment plant sludge through effective anaerobic biological treatment, sewage sludge in less than one parasite eggs/liter; hospitals have strict health and safety management system to ensure that harmful chemicals, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, and radioactive material will not be discharged into municipal sewers;separate collection of excreta of patients, and use of disinfectants in sufficient quantities for proper disposal after disinfection.
It does not meet the above conditions, the hospital needs to establish separate sewage treatment facilities. WHO calls for hospital wastewater production, treatment, discharge and supervise the whole process. Chemicals on the hospital and patients were classified waste collection and treatment, is both chemical safety and biological safety requirements. WHO also on the hospital expansion in the scope of sewage to the downstream wastewater treatment plant, sewage treatment required to achieve 95% removal of the pathogens require first of all to go through anaerobic digestion of sludge, while less than 1 parasite eggs in sludge a / l.
The separate treatment of hospital sewage, WHO has put forward specific requirements, process flow, including primary treatment, secondary biological treatment, advanced treatment, and disinfection. Hospital sewage sludge generated in the process contains a lot of bacteria and parasite eggs, should be anaerobic digestion, can also be dried with the hospital’s solid waste incineration.
3 The Choice Of Hospital Sewage Treatment Process
– To Promote Biological Treatment Process.
Secondary biological treatment can remove water in the suspended solids, dissolved organic matter and ammonia nitrogen, not only the hospital effluent discharge standards, and can greatly reduce the number of disinfectants, disinfection by-products to reduce the generation and impact on the environment. Therefore, the biochemical process of hospital treatment of general applicability. However, considering the biological treatment of high investment in infrastructure, poor economic conditions for a hospital or sewage may be discharged into the downstream city built a municipal sewage treatment plant’s Hospital sewer may make use of enhanced primary treatment process.
– To Enhance The Treatment Effect Of Primary Treatment.
The hospital is located in a terminal municipal sewage treatment plant when the sewer is recommended to strengthen the regional treatment effect of treatment technology. Strengthen the primary treatment can effectively remove the suspended solids in wastewater, effluent SS reached 50 ~ 60mg / L, to meet the requirements of the improvement of hospital treatment, so that a more stable disinfectant dosage. Compared with the biochemical treatment technology, enhanced primary treatment and the relatively low investment in infrastructure, a one-time investment less likely to be adopted and promoted.
And sewage treatment facilities in existing hospitals can be part of the advantage. Outstanding development in many parts of the economy, using the technology routes is also conducive to the popularity of hospital treatment. According to USA’s existing hospital sewage treatment facilities, taking into account regional differences in economic development, the effect of strengthening the primary treatment to achieve the following two ways click here: Pubg mobile apk
– Modification Of Existing Primary Treatment Process.2.
Full use of existing treatment facilities, the application of existing hospitals more septic tank, regulating pool, contact pool in the structure or operation to transform the way as much as possible to improve the treatment efficiency to meet the discharge standard hospital treatment.
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